What is Nihilism?
The word ”nihilism“ is a word derived from the Latin word” nihil “meaning” none". It is a philosophical current spreading among the intellectual youth in Russia. To put it simply, he argues that everything is meaningless and worthless. Nihilists reject the existence of God and free will. Nihilist thought was influenced by thinkers such as Friedrich Nietzsche,Neyzen Tevfik, Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, Henry Thomas Buckle, Max Stirner, Albert Camus, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jean-Paul Sartre and Herbert Spencer. It has led to the reaction of beliefs because it denies that man is made up of spirit.
We will look at the thoughts of the German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, which cannot be fully understood. According to him, nihilism is misunderstood or incomplete.The main reason for this is that it negates life.Nietzsche often describes those who experience”false nihilism “in his books as” pesimists " and has argued that this pesimism should be avoided.In his books, he describes nihilism as a “negative attitude of thought that results from the loss of values of higher ideals”. He wanted to say that the concept of God has been corrupted or destroyed on earth when he said that’ God is dead ' and that this being has now become “an absence that reduces all the values attributed to him to nothing.”In this way, he brought a different perspective to the philosophical current.
Varieties Of Nihilism
New varieties of nihilism have sprung up since its emergence. Each genre has added new and controversial views to the current of nihilism. Over time, nihilism became a soup of ideas. The philosophy of nihilism is a way of thinking that, in general, nothing exists and nothing can reach conclusions.
Moral nihilism: Known as ”ethical nihilism". It is the view that asserts that morality does not exist as something specific to objective truth. He believes that not all moral beliefs and opinions are true.
Mereological (logical) nihilism: denies the existence of bodies consisting of separate sections. It is also called” compositional nihilism". In this view, apparent objects are the product of a false perception.
Epistecological (philosophy of knowledge) nihilism: rejects all knowledge found in the universe. It is a philosophical idea based on which no knowledge exists. They take a skeptical angle on the fact that the information cannot actually be verified.
Metaphysics (spiritual) nihilism: generally believes that nothing can exist on its own.. It is a skeptical approach that denies all existence. It is a way of thinking that rejects all beings and beliefs.
Existential nihilism: based on existentialism. The belief that life has no value or meaning prevails. The universe, life, and all concepts are meaningless in the whole of existence.
Political nihilism: it is the current of nihilism that has emerged in Russia. In terms of its structure it is called political nihilism. Government, Family, Law, community structures are required. The nihilist movement, which emerged on the basis of establishing a new social order, later evolved into a current that rejected the whole order, the state, authority, social institutions and governments.